What is Hemorrhoids – symptoms, causes and treatment

Hemorrhoids are swollen veins in and around the anus.

Internal hemorrhoids involve the veins inside your rectum. Internal hemorrhoids usually don`t hurt but they may bleed painlessly.

External hemorrhoids involve the veins outside the anus. They can be itchy or painful and can sometimes crack and bleed.

What are the signs and symptoms?
The most common symptom of internal haemorrhoids is bright red blood covering the stool.
However, an internal hemorrhoid may project through the anus outside the body, becoming irritated and painful. This is known as a protruding hemorrhoid.

Symptoms in external hemorrhoid:

Painful swelling or a hard lump around the anus that results when a blood clot forms. This condition is known as external hemorrhoid.

What are the causes ?
One of the main causes is straining during a bowel movement. This may happen due to constipation or diarrhea. It may also happen if you sit on the toilet for too long.

Pregnant women often get hemorrhoids because of the strain from carrying the baby and from giving birth. Being very overweight, or standing or lifting too much can make hemorrhoids worse.

How is it diagnosed?
A thorough examination of the anus and rectum is made.
To rule out other causes of the gastrointestinal bleeding colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy is also done.


Constipation is a main cause of haemorrhoids so

  • Include more fiber in your diet. Fresh fruits, leafy vegetables, and whole-grain breads and cereals are good sources of fiber.
  • Drink plenty of fluids. Eight glasses of water a day is ideal.
  • When you feel the need to have a bowel movement, don`t wait too long to use the bathroom.

Relieving the pain

  • Take warm soaks 3 or 4 times a day.
  • Clean your anus after each bowel movement by patting gently with moist toilet paper..
  • Use ice packs to relieve swelling.

What is the treatment?
Medical treatment is aimed at relieving the symptoms.
Surgical methods are also used to reduce or remove the hemorrhoids.

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